Are HEPA Filters and Air Purifiers Safe? – Smart Air

HEPA filters have caused controversy over concerns that they might shed tiny fibers and be harmful to health. However, the latest scientific studies have shown HEPA filters are safe and found no evidence of harm.

Closeup HEPA filter material

Possible shedding fibers have made some people afraid of HEPA filters and question “Are HEPA filters safe?” There’s a controversy over whether fiberglass particles can cause lung disease and cause cancer. Some people are worried that fibers in HEPA filters will break off, enter the air, and enter people’s lungs.

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Are HEPA filter fibers dangerous? Let’s break the question of whether HEPA filters are harmful to human health into two parts:

1. Can The Fibers from HEPA Filters Break Off and Enter Our Lungs?

A team of scientists looked into whether or not commercially available filters shed fibers in both the lab and real-world conditions. They tested a fiberglass filter and a filter made from plastic fibers (polycarbonate and polyester). Both filters tested were rated to capture 95% of particles in the air (H11 HEPA filters or MERV 16).

In the lab, they blew clean air at each filter for 6 hours. While they did that, they captured and measured the number of fibers breaking off the filter and traveling downstream.

HEPA Filter Fiber Shedding from air Test Research

But wait, fibers breaking off from HEPA filters could be tiny, right? So how do the scientists know that they can actually detect fibers coming off of the filter?

To make sure they could detect the fibers, the scientists used a tiny filter with gaps that were just 0.4 microns big. That works because the fibers that broke off the filters were on average 1.5 microns in diameter and 24 microns in length. That’s over 50 times bigger than the gaps in the capture filter.

Size of Capture net to Catch Fibers Shed by HEPA Filters

And indeed, they were able to capture fibers coming off the filters. They captured 300 fiber particles per cubic meter of air from the synthetic filter and 700 from the fiberglass filter.

number of fibers shed or broken off from hepa filters

Comparing Fibers Shed From HEPA Filters With Everyday Air

Seven hundred fibers sound like a lot, but let’s compare it to something we know more about: PM2.5. HEPA fiber particles are in the size range of PM2.5, and PM2.5 is in the air we breathe every day.

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The World Health Organization sets a PM2.5 annual limit of 10 micrograms per meter cubed. Using a simple formula, that’s equivalent to 25,225 PM2.5 particles per meter cubed, or 35 times what the filters were shedding.

number of fibers shed from HEPA filters much less than what we normally breathe

Let’s compare that to some of the cleanest cities in the world, like Bredkalen in Sweden or Sinclair in the US. In those places, PM2.5 averages 2 micrograms over a whole year. 2 micrograms is equivalent to 7 times more tiny particles than what would come off a HEPA filter.

In short, air purifier filters do shed fibers, but the number of fibers is negligible. What’s more, the researchers also found that the number of fibers shed reduced over time.

Evidence of HEPA Filter Shed Fibers

2. Are Tiny Microscopic Fibers Inhaled Into our Body Harmful to our Health?

OK, so HEPA filters only shed a small number of fibers. But to prove HEPAs are safe, we need to ensure these fibers are not harmful to our bodies if we breathe them in. Maybe they’re harmful because they’re so long, thin, and brittle? Perhaps the fibers can get trapped in our windpipes or lungs, leading to serious health impacts? For example, asbestos fibers are more harmful than the average particle.

Is Fiberglass Dangerous?

Fiberglass might cause several hazards including skin irritation from contact leading to cuts and itching, eye irritation causing redness and swelling, respiratory issues like sore throat and difficulty breathing upon inhaling its particles, and potential cancer risks as a suspected carcinogen, although its exact impact on humans remains uncertain. Proper protective gear is essential when working with fiberglass to mitigate these risks, especially for individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions like asthma or bronchitis.

Research shows fibers unlikely to cause irreversible damage

Many researchers have studied the health impacts of fiberglass on the body, yet there’s still no agreement on whether fibers are harmful or not. One study by the American College of Chest Physicians looked at the effect of fibers on the lungs of animals and humans. After analyzing over 30 studies, the physicians concluded that glass fibers could be irritant to the lungs. However, they also found the fibers are unlikely to cause irreversible damage or cancer. They concluded that fiberglass be classified as a nuisance dust.

Glass Fiber not Harmful Nuisance Dust

Research Shows Elevated Risk of Respiratory Cancer Due to Fibers

Despite this, other reports [1, 2] have found some evidence of the harm from fibers. One study analyzed 32,110 workers in the US. They looked at the effects of fiberglass over a long period of time (more than 30 years). The results weren’t conclusive, but the study found there could be an elevated risk of respiratory cancer for people who work with fiberglass daily.

Some Evidence Cancer from Glass Fibers

The NIOSH Exposure Limit for Fibers

Despite the harms of small fibers on the body, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the US recommends a fiber count of no more than 3 fibers/cm3, averaged over a 10-hour work shift. NIOSH suggests that people may experience irritation to the eyes, skin, nose, and throat or difficulty breathing.

Here’s how that compares to the number of fibers shed from the HEPA filters in the study above.

NIOSH recommended limit for glass fibers higher than break off count for HEPA filters

Of course, with many things, we probably want to breathe even less than the workplace limit, but the number of fibers is far less than the NIOSH exposure limit. The difference is from a few hundred to 3 million.

Air Purifier Safety Concerns

In short, air purifiers have little side effects. When used appropriately, air purifier technology poses no hazards. Furthermore, people are encouraged to use them to enhance their lifestyle and health. If you live in an urban area and are allergic to dust, pollen, or pet hair, keep one at home.

However, if you own ozone-generating air purifiers, the gas will be released, causing throat problems and difficulty breathing.

Bottom Line: Are HEPA filters safe?

HEPA filters shed very few fibers over their lifetime, with the highest rate of shedding when they’re new. Although some studies have linked fiberglass to cancer, a summary of research suggests that the fibers are no more harmful than other dust in the air. Even for new HEPA filters, the number of fibers shredded is less than one thousandth the occupational limit.

Data shows that glass fiber filters can shed more fibers than synthetic filters, while the number of particles shed by both types of filter is very small, Smart Air chooses to use synthetic fibers to lower the risk. Smart Air uses PP+PET material in all our HEPA filters.

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Learn more: what are medical grade HEPA filters and how can they protect me »

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